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Etiology , Viral Diseases Agens in Poultry:
Gumboro Disease or Infectious Bursal Disease, IBD is caused by a birnavirus (infectious bursal disease virus; IBDV). Two serotypes of IBDV: Serotype 1 & Serotype 2. Serotype 1 cause disease in chickens. Serotype 2 strains of the virus infect chickens and also turkeys but have not caused clinical disease or immunosuppression in these hosts. IBDVs have been identified in other avian species, including penguins, and antibodies to IBDV have been seen in several wild avian species.
This disease is caused by IB virus (IBV), it is a coronavirus that only causes disease in chickens, although some other birds may be subclinically infected. Some serotypes are geographically restricted, but multiple serotypes commonly cocirculate in one geographic region. One of them is QX strains. This strain caused cystic oviduct in female chicken.
This disease is caused by Newcastle Disease virus (NDV), synonymous with avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PMV-1), are an RNA virus and the most important of the 11 known PMV serotypes as a pathogen for poultry. Virus divides into three virulence groups by chicken embryo and chicken inoculation as virulent (velogenic), moderately virulent (mesogenic), or of low virulence (lentogenic).
Avian Influenza, AI viruses are orthomyxoviruses, characterized by antigenically homologous nucleoprotein and matrix internal proteins, which are identified by serology in agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests. AI viruses are divided into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16), and 9 neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes based on hemagglutinin inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition tests. H5 and H7 AI viruses are highly pathogenic for chickens.
Avian Pox, Fowl pox is caused by the large DNA virus, avipoxvirus in the Poxviridae family. This virus is resistant and may survive in the environment for extended periods in dried scabs. Recently, molecular analyses of vaccine and field strains of fowlpox viruses have shown some significant differences. The virus is present in large numbers in the lesions and transmitted by contact through abrasions of the skin. Skin lesions, scabs, shed from recovering birds in poultry houses can become a source of aerosol infection. Mosquitoes or biting insects may serve as mechanical vectors.